No theory forbids me to say "Ah!" or "Ugh!", but it forbids me the bogus theorization of my "Ah!" and "Ugh!" - the value judgments. - Theodor Julius Geiger (1960)

Zygmunt Bauman was a Polish-British sociologist from a Jewish family, best known for his theory of modernity and postmodernity. According to him, modernity is characterized by the belief in progress and the ability of human reason to shape the world in a positive way. This belief is reflected in the emergence of science, technology and the nation-state as dominant forces in the modern world. However, due to its relentless pursuit of efficiency, productivity and economic growth, modernity has a dark side that is accompanied by social and cultural alienation, such as the erosion of community and the erosion of traditional values and ways of life. Bauman calls this postmodernity.

By his concept of "liquid modernity," Bauman meant that modern society is characterized by a sense of fluidity and instability as traditional structures and values are increasingly challenged and eroded by globalization and other forces of change. A sense of insecurity and uncertainty results as people struggle to keep up with the demands of a rapidly changing world.