No theory forbids me to say "Ah!" or "Ugh!", but it forbids me the bogus theorization of my "Ah!" and "Ugh!" - the value judgments. - Theodor Julius Geiger (1960)

Shmuel Noah Eisenstadt (1923-2010) was an Israeli sociologist who was born in Poland. 

Eisenstadt is well-known for his concept of "multiple modernities", which suggests that there is no one path or model of modernization that applies to all societies. Societies can modernize in different ways and at different speeds and can go through periods of decline as well as progress.

Some societies can modernize faster and more smoothly than others, depending on the strength and stability of their institutions, the level of economic development and the degree to which their cultures are open to change.

Eisenstadt's concept of "multiple modernities" has influenced sociological and historical studies of modernization, helping to denounce the idea that there is a single, universal path to modernization.