No theory forbids me to say "Ah!" or "Ugh!", but it forbids me the bogus theorization of my "Ah!" and "Ugh!" - the value judgments. - Theodor Julius Geiger (1960)

Normal Accidents & High Reliability

Here's a comparative table highlighting the key aspects of Normal Accident Theory (NAT) and High-Reliability Organizing (HRO)

While NAT delves into the inherent complexities within systems and their potential for accidents, HRO focuses on a proactive culture of safety and reliability within organizations, in order to anticipate, manage, and recover from potential failures.

Both theories offer different perspectives on system safety: NAT emphasizes system complexities and HRO highlights organizational strategies for reliability. These two theories can complement each other in providing a comprehensive understanding of system safety.

Perrow, C. (1999)
Rochlin, G. (1996)
Weick, K. & Sutcliffe, K. (2007)